1. Floppy Disk
A floppy disk is a magnetic storage medium for computer systems. The floppy disk is composed of a thin, flexible magnetic disk sealed in a square plastic carrier. In order to read and write data from a floppy disk, a computer system must have a floppy disk drive (FDD). A floppy disk is also referred to simply as a floppy. Since the early days of personal computing, floppy disks were widely used to distribute software, transfer files, and create back-up copies of data. When hard drives were still very expensive, floppy disks were also used to store the operating system of a computer.
A number of different types of floppy disks have been developed. The size of the floppy got smaller, and the storage capacity increased. However, in the 1990s, other media, including hard disk drives, ZIP drives, optical drives, and USB flash drives, started to replace floppy disks as the primary storage medium.
Types of Floppy Disks
The first floppy disks that came on the market were 8 inches (200 mm) in diameter. The disk was protected by a flexible plastic jacket. An 8-inch disk back in the late 1970s could store about 1 MB of data. This was quickly followed by a smaller version of the same design, the 5.25-inch (133 mm) floppy, which could store about the same amount of information using higher-density media and recording techniques.
In the early 1980s, the 3.5-inch (90 mm) floppy, or micro floppy, came on the market, and this type became the dominant storage medium for personal computers for many years. Each of these floppy disks required a different type of floppy disk drive. These were typically built into the computer case itself.
Floppy disks were quite vulnerable. The disk medium was very sensitive to dust, moisture, and heat. The flexible plastic carrier was also not very sturdy. The hard plastic case of the 3.5-inch floppy presented a substantial improvement in this respect. The most common format of this floppy became the double-sided, high-density 1.44 MB disk drive.
2. Reel Tape
Reel Tape is the oldest form of magnetic tape in the form of audio recording where magnetic recording media is held on a reel ,. This tool has a width of 0.5 inches and reaches 2400 feet in length. usually also has a density or a density level of up to 6250 bits per inch. Each magnetic tape reel has two areas that are not used to record data called a leader.
How it Works Reel Tape :
The performance of the reel tape is greatly influenced by the width of the track used to record the signal, and the speed of the tape. The wider and faster the better, but of course this uses more recording. Reel tape can hold multiple parallel tracks, so it’s not only stereo recording, but multi-track recording too. This gives the final edit manufacturer greater flexibility, which allows performance to be remixed long after the initial performance is recorded. a tool for recording and reading data on a magnetic tape is a tape drive.
Advantages of Reel Tape
Performance to be recorded without a 30 minute time limit from a black disc.
Performance is recorded so that it can be edited.
The recording can be edited by cutting and pasting the tape.
Lack of Reel Tape
The shape is still complicated.
Must cut and paste the ribbon to edit it.
Using a ribbon that is still very simple and thin
3. Tape cartridge
A tape cartridge is a storage device that contains a spool of magnetic tape used to store different kinds of data, from corporate data to audio and video files. Each cartridge is designed to fit into a compatible audio/video recorder system or computer system. In the context of computing, however, a tape cartridge is the magnetic tape storage cartridge used in tape library units to store digital data on magnetic tape, which is packaged in cassettes and cartridges.Tape cartridges are also known as data cartridges.
A magnetic tape cartridge is an essential component of a robust backup system, which makes use of tape libraries for long-term backup storage. The tape cartridge is the actual piece of hardware that data is saved to; through an autoloader or a robot, the cartridge is inserted into one of many tape drives within a tape library unit for reading and writing.
Because of the nature of the tape cartridge, only sequential writing and reading are possible, so if a specific file needs to be located, the tape drive must read the tape cartridge from the beginning of the spool until it reaches the specific file location. This can take time and is the biggest drawback of a storage system using magnetic tape cartridges. However, tape is cheaper per gigabyte compared to hard drives and solid-state drives, making it ideal for long-term storage archiving.
4. Flash Disk
A storage module made of flash memory chips. Flash disks have no mechanical platters or access arms, but the term “disk” is used because the data are accessed as if they were on a hard drive. The disk storage structure is emulated.
The first flash disks were housed in Type II PC Cards for expanding laptop storage. Subsequently, flash memory disks have arrived in a variety of formats, including entire hard drive replacements (see SSD), memory cards for digital cameras (see flash memory) and modules that fit on a keychain (see USB drive).
Early Flash Disks
The 40MB and 175MB modules are Type II PC Cards. Not even one gigabyte, their capacity is utterly minuscule by today’s standards. Nevertheless, they provided extra storage for the first laptops. The 15MB module is an earlier CompactFlash camera card.
(Solid State Drive) An SSD is an all-electronic non-volatile storage device that is an alternative to, and is increasingly replacing, hard disks. Employed in myriad products, including mobile devices, iPods, cameras, laptops and desktop computers, SSDs are faster than hard disks because there is zero latency (no read/write head to move). They are also more rugged and reliable and offer greater protection in hostile environments. In addition, SSDs use less power and are not affected by magnets.
In time, there will only be solid state storage, and spinning disk platters will be as obsolete as the punch card (see future memory chips). See disk on module and garbage collection.
Mostly Flash Memory
SSDs are made of flash memory chips 99% of the time. However, for the absolute fastest storage speed obtainable, there are SSDs that use volatile RAM chips backed up by non-volatile storage in case of power failure (see nvSRAMand BBSRAM).
Hybrid Drive (SSD and Disk)
Hybrid drives, such as the Fusion Drive in Macs, combine an SSD with a hard disk (see solid state hybrid drive and Fusion Drive).
Hard Drive Replacement Kits
This Kingston kit includes everything necessary to replace a desktop computer’s hard drive with an SSD. Laptop kits include an external case for holding the old drive while it is cloned to the SSD.
When you save data or install programs on your computer, the information is typically written to your hard disk. The hard disk is a spindle of magnetic disks, called platters, that record and store information. Because the data is stored magnetically, information recorded to the hard disk remains intact after you turn your computer off. This is an important distinction between the hard disk and RAM, or memory, which is reset when the computer’s power is turned off.
The hard disk is housed inside the hard drive, which reads and writes data to the disk. The hard drive also transmits data back and forth between the CPU and the disk. When you save data on your hard disk, the hard drive has to write thousands, if not millions, of ones and zeros to the hard disk. It is an amazing process to think about, but may also be a good incentive to keep a backup of your data.
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks) A disk or solid state drive (SSD) subsystem that increases performance or provides fault tolerance or both. RAID uses two or more physical drives and a RAID controller, which is plugged into motherboards that do not have RAID circuits. Today, most motherboards have built-in RAID but not necessarily every RAID configuration (see below). In the past, RAID was also accomplished by software only but was much slower. In the late 1980s, the “I” in RAID stood for “inexpensive” but was later changed to “independent.”
In large storage area networks (SANs), floor-standing RAID units are common with terabytes of storage and huge amounts of cache memory. RAID is also used in desktop computers by gamers for speed and by business users for reliability. Following are the various RAID configurations. See NAS and SAN.
RAID 0 – Striping for Performance (Popular)
Widely used for gaming, striping interleaves data across multiple drives for performance. However, there are no safeguards against failure. See RAID 0.
RAID 1 – Mirroring for Fault Tolerance (Popular)
Widely used, RAID 1 writes two drives at the same time. It provides the highest reliability but doubles the number of drives needed.
RAID 10 combines RAID 1 mirroring with RAID 0 striping for both safety and performance. See RAID 1 and RAID 10.
RAID 3 – Speed and Fault Tolerance
Data are striped across three or more drives for performance, and parity is computed for safety. Similar to RAID 3, RAID 4 uses block level striping but is not as popular. See RAID 3 and RAID parity.
RAID 5 – Speed and Fault Tolerance (Popular)
Data are striped across three or more drives for performance, and parity is computed for safety. RAID 5 is similar to RAID 3, except that the parity is distributed to all drives. RAID 6 offers more reliability than RAID 5 by performing more parity computations. For more details, see RAID 5.
EMC has been a leader in high-end RAID systems for years with systems storing multiple terabytes of data. (Image courtesy of EMC Corporation.)
Arco was first to provide RAID 1 on IDE disk drives rather than SCSI. This two-drive unit connected to the motherboard with one cable like a single drive. (Image courtesy of Arco Computer Products, Inc., www.arcoide.com)
This RAID prototype was built by University of Berkeley graduate students in 1992. Housing 36 320MB disk drives, total storage was 11GB.
Super Talent’s USB 3.0 RAID drives provide RAID 0 storage that is faster than an internal hard drive.